The anatomy and pathology of the maxillary sinus will be reviewed from a radiological perspective. This structure is at the borderland between dentistry and otolaryngology, and therefore between dentomaxillofacial radiology and head & neck radiology. The walls and recesses of the sinus, as well as the relations and drainage pathway are reviewed. Incidental findings of no significance are common and include minor mucosal thickening and retention cysts. This sinus can be affected by primary sinonasal pathology including inflammation and tumours, or secondarily by odontogenic lesions including periapical inflammation and odontogenic cysts and tumours. Its margins can also be affected by primary bone lesions including fibro-osseous lesions and osseous neoplasms. The maxillary sinus is important to consider when planning implants in the posterior maxilla, especially when bone augmentation procedures are required. The post-operative appearances are reviewed, including mucocoele formation (previously seen following Caldwell-Luc antrostomies and now more commonly after orthognathic surgery). The role of different imaging modalities is reviewed, including the inadequacy of dental panoramic tomography and the important complementary roles of CT (or Cone Beam CT) and MRI.
Presented by Rudolf Boeddinghaus